Program Participant

Program Participant

Larry Martinez

Professor, Political Science, California State University, Long Beach

Larry F. Martinez is Professor of Political Science at the California State University at Long Beach. After completing his Ph.D. in Political Science at the University of California, Santa Barbara in 1984, he joined the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) where he participated in developing the “rules of the road” for the first private international satellite networks.

In 1988, he was appointed to the Department of Political Science at the California State University, Long Beach, where he researches and teaches in the areas of international relations and law, with a research focus on outer space/cyberspace law and policy. In 1998-99, Martinez was a Fulbright Senior Research fellow at the Center of Technology Assessment in Stuttgart, Germany.

You can find Larry Martinez in:

Research Workshop: Privacy and Security
Sunday, 15 January 2017

Research Topical Session 8: Network Infrastructure, Architectures and Technologies
Tuesday, 17 January 2017


Cyber-conflict with Regard to Large Satellite Constellations: Need for Cyberspace Rules of the Road


Paper Slides


This research paper examines challenges to established regulatory and legal precedents for addressing cyber-conflict issues posed by the deployment of large satellite infrastructures and constellations in low-earth orbits. Based on the 1960s Outer Space Treaty, the existing satellite regulatory regime was developed to address the needs of a system consisting primarily of individual governmental and civilian satellites in geostationary, polar, or sun-synchronous orbits, which supported data networks buffered from terrestrial telecommunications disruptions by means of highly secure earth stations.

Starting in the 1990s, launches of large constellations of navigation and low-earth orbit communications satellites presaged a shift to new forms of satellite-based space communication networks directly integrated into terrestrial Internet networks servicing billions of smartphones and computers. This integration makes Internet networks and all who rely on them increasing vulnerable to direct disruption by individual private hackers and/or massive state-sponsored cyber-warfare assaults.

This paper argues for the development of a new cyber-conflict code of conduct providing “rules of the road” both on earth and in space. The EU Code of Conduct is evaluated as a possible template for this new regulatory regime.

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